Introduction to Video Compression – Part IV

Motion Compensation
In the video decoder, motion compensation uses the motion vectors encoded in the video bit stream to predict the pixels in each macro block. If the horizontal and vertical components of the motion vector are both integer values, then the predicted macro block is simply a copy of the 16-pixel by 16-pixel region of the reference frame. If either component of the motion vector has a non-integer value, interpolation is used to estimate the image at non-integer pixel locations. Next, the prediction error is decoded and added to the predicted macro block in order to reconstruct the actual macro block pixels.

Compared to motion estimation, motion compensation is much less computationally demanding. While motion estimation must perform SAD or SSD computation on a number of 16-pixel by 16-pixel regions per macro block, motion compensation simply copies or interpolates one such region. Because of this important difference, video decoding is much less computationally demanding than encoding. Nevertheless, motion compensation can still take up as much as 40% of the processor cycles in a video decoder, although this number varies greatly depending on the content of a video sequence, the video compression standard, and the decoder implementation. For example, the motion compensation workload can comprise as little as 5% of the processor cycles spent in the decoder for a frame that makes little use of interpolation.

Like motion estimation, motion compensation requires the video decoder to keep one or two reference frames in memory, often requiring external memory chips for this purpose. However, motion compensation makes fewer accesses to reference frame buffers than does motion estimation. Therefore, memory bandwidth requirements are less stringent for motion compensation compared to motion estimation, although high memory bandwidth is still desirable for best processor performance in motion compensation functions.


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