My question is why every currency has horizontal or vertical strokes? The designer IIT-ian might know about this as he has copied from it… and btw, do y…ou need to be an iitian for getting design skills!! I’m confused, what i am doing here!
It is the month of August, on the shores of the Black Sea .. It is raining, and the little town looks totally deserted. It is tough times, Everybody is in debt, and everybody lives on credit.
Suddenly, a rich tourist comes to town.
He enters the only hotel, lays a 100 Euro note on the reception counter, and goes to inspect the rooms upstairs in order to choose one.
The hotel proprietor takes the 100 Euro note and runs to pay his debt to the butcher.
The butcher takes the 100 Euro note, and runs to pay his debt to the pig grower.
The pig grower takes the 100 Euro note, and runs to pay his debt to the supplier of his feed and fuel.
The supplier of feed and fuel takes the 100 Euro note and runs to pay his debt to the town’s prostitute that in these hard times, gave her services on credit.
The hooker runs to the hotel, and pays off her debt with the 100 Euro note to the hotel proprietor to pay for the rooms that she rented when she brought her clients there.
The hotel proprietor then lays the 100 Euro note back on the counter so that the rich tourist will not suspect anything..At that moment, the tourist comes down after inspecting the rooms, and takes his 100 Euro note, after saying that he did not like any of the rooms, and leaves town.
No one earned anything. However, the whole town is now without debt, and looks to the future with a lot of optimism…. . And that, ladies and gentlemen, is how the world is doing business today.
1 Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana;
2 Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission;
3 Rajiv Gandhi National Crèche Scheme for the Children of Working Mothers, Department of Women & Child Development;
4. Rajiv Gandhi Udyami Mitra Yojana;
5 Indira Awas Yojana
6 Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme;
7 Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission
8 Jawaharlal Nehru Rojgar Yojna
9.Rajiv Gandhi Shramik Kalyan Yojna;
10 Indira Gandhi Canal Project, Funded by World Bank
11.Rajiv Gandhi Shilpi Swasthya Bima Yojana
1 Rajiv Gandhi Rehabilitation Package for Tsunami Affected Areas,
2.Rajiv Gandhi Social Security Scheme, Govt. of Puducherry
3Rajiv Ratna Awas Yojna;
4 Rajiv Gandhi Prathamik Shiksha Mission, Raigarh;
5 Rajiv Gandhi Shiksha Mission, Madhya Pradesh;
6 Rajiv Gandhi Mission on Food Security , Madhya Pradesh;
7. Rajiv Gandhi Mission on Community Health, Madhya Pradesh;
8 Rajiv Gandhi Rural Housing Corp.;
9 Rajiv Gandhi Tourism Development Mission, Rajasthan;
10 Rajiv Gandhi Computer Literacy Programme, Assam
11 Rajiv Gandhi Swavlamban Rojgar Yojana, Govt. of NCT of Delhi
12.Rajiv Gandhi Mobile Aids Counseling and Testing Services, Rajiv Gandhi Foundation
13.Rajiv Gandhi Vidyarthi Suraksha Yojana, Maharashtra;
14 Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Water Shed Management, M.P.;
15Rajiv Gandhi Food Security Mission for Tribal Areas, MP
16.Rajiv Gandhi Home for Handicapped, Pondicherry;
17 Rajiv Gandhi Breakfast Scheme, Pondicherry;
18 Rajiv Gandhi Akshay Urja Divas, Punjab;
19 Rajiv Gandhi Artisans Health & Life Insurance Scheme, Tamil Nadu;
20 Rajiv Gandhi Zopadpatti and Nivara Prakalpa, Mumbai;
21 Rajiv Arogya Sri programme, Gujrat State Govt. Scheme;
22 Rajiv Gandhi Abhyudaya Yojana, AP;
23 Rajiv Gandhi Computer Saksharta Mission, Jabalpur
24 Rajiv Gandhi Bridges and Roads Infrastructure Development Programme;
25 Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Niwara Prakalp, Maharashtra Govt
26Indira Gandhi Utkrishtha Chhattervritti Yojna , HP;
27 Indira Gandhi Women Protection Scheme, Maharashtra Gov;
28.Indira Gandhi Prathisthan, Housing and Urban Planning Department, UP Govt
29.Indira Kranthi Patham Scheme, Andhra Pradesh ;
30Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana, State Govt. Scheme;
31 Indira Gandhi Vruddha Bhumiheen Shetmajoor Anudan Yojana, Govt. of Maharashtra
32.Indira Gandhi Nahar Project, Jaisalmer, Govt. of Rajasthan
33.Indira Gandhi Niradhar Yojna, Govt. of Maharashtra;
34 Indira Gandhi kuppam, State Govt. Welfare Scheme for Tsunami effected fishermen; 35 Indira Gandhi Drinking Water Scheme-2006, Haryana Govt.
36.Indira Gandhi Niradhar Old, Landless, Destitute women farm labour Scheme, Maharashtra Govt.
37.Indira Gandhi Women Protection Scheme , Maharashtra Govt.
38.Indira Gaon Ganga Yojana, Chattisgarh;
39 Indira Sahara Yojana , Chattisgarh;
40 Indira Soochna Shakti Yojana, Chattisgarh;
41 Indira Gandhi Balika Suraksha Yojana , HP;
42 Indira Gandhi Garibi Hatao Yojana (DPIP), MP;
43 Indira Gandhi super thermal power project , Haryana Govt.
44 Indira Gandhi Water Project, Haryana Govt.
45.Indira Gandhi Sagar Project, Bhandara District Gosikhurd Maharashtra;
46 Indira Jeevitha Bima Pathakam, AP Govt;
47 Indira Gandhi Priyadarshani Vivah Shagun Yojana, Haryana Govt;
48 Indira Mahila Yojana Scheme, Meghalaya Govt
49.Indira Gandhi Calf Rearing Scheme, Chhattisgarh Govt.
50.Indira Gandhi Priyadarshini Vivah Shagun Yojana, Haryana Govt.
51.Indira Gandhi Calf Rearing Scheme;
52 Indira Gandhi Landless Agriculture Labour scheme, Maharashtra Govt.
1.Rajiv Gandhi Gold Cup Kabaddi Tournament;
2 Rajiv Gandhi Sadbhavana Run;
3.Rajiv Gandhi Federation Cup boxing championship
4.Rajiv Gandhi International tournament (football)
5.NSCI – Rajiv Gandhi road races, New Delhi;
6. Rajiv Gandhi Boat Race, Kerala;
7Rajiv Gandhi International Artistic Gymnastic Tournament
8.Rajiv Gandhi Kabbadi Meet
9.Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Roller Skating Championshi;
10 Rajiv Gandhi memorial marathon race, New Delhi;
11Rajiv Gandhi International Judo Championship, Chandigarh
12.Rajeev Gandhi Memorial Trophy for the Best College, Calicut;
13 Rajiv Gandhi Rural Cricket Tournament, Initiated by Rahul Gandhi in Amethi
14.Rajiv Gandhi Gold Cup (U-21), football;
15 Rajiv Gandhi Trophy (football;
16. Rajiv Gandhi Award for Outstanding Sportspersons;
17 All Indira Rajiv Gandhi Basketball (Girls) Tournament, organized by Delhi State
18.All India Rajiv Gandhi Wrestling Gold Cup, organized by Delhi State
19.Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Jhopadpatti Football Tournament, Rajura;
20.Rajiv Gandhi International Invitation Gold Cup Football Tournament, Jamshedpur
21.Rajiv Gandhi Mini Olympics, Mumbai
22.Rajiv Gandhi Beachball Kabaddi Federation;
23 Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Trophy Prerana Foundation;
24 International Indira Gandhi Gold Cup Tournament;
25 25 Indira Gandhi International Hockey Tournament
26.Indira Gandhi Boat Race;
27.Jawaharlal Nehru International Gold Cup Football Tournamen;
28 Jawaharlal Nehru Hockey Tournament.
1.Indira Gandhi Sports Complex, Delhi ;
2.Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium, New Delhi ;
3.Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, New Delhi ;
4. Rajiv Gandhi Sports Stadium, Bawana
5.Rajiv Gandhi National Football Academy, Haryana;
6.Rajiv Gandhi AC Stadium, Vishakhapatnam
7.Rajiv Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Pondicherry;
8 Rajiv Gandhi Stadium, Nahariagun, Itanagar;
9.Rajiv Gandhi Badminton Indoor Stadium, Cochin;
10.Rajiv Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Kadavanthra, Ernak;
11.Rajiv Gandhi Sports Complex , Singhu
12.Rajib Gandhi Memorial Sports Complex, Guwahati ;
13.Rajiv Gandhi International Stadium, Hyderabad
14.Rajiv Gandhi Indoor Stadium, Cochin;
15.Indira Gandhi Stadium, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh;
16.Indira Gandhi Stadium, Una, Himachal Pradesh;
17.Indira Priyadarshini Stadium, Vishakhapatnam;
18 Indira Gandhi Stadium, Deogarh, Rajasthan
19.Gandhi Stadium, Bolangir, Orissa
1.Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, New Hyderabad, A.P.
2.Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal, Cochin
3.Indira Gandhi International Airport, New Delhi
4..Indira Gandhi Dock, Mumbai
5.Jawaharlal Nehru Nava Sheva Port Trust, Mumbai
1.Rajiv Gandhi Indian Institute of Management, Shilong
2.Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Aeronautics, Ranchi, Jharkhand
3.Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, Gandhi Nagar, Bhopal, M.P.
4.Rajiv Gandhi School of Intellectual Property Law, Kharagpur, Kolkata;
5.Rajiv Gandhi Aviation Academy, Secundrabad ;
6 Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Patiala, Punjab;
7 Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Tamil Nadu;
8 Rajiv Gandhi Aviation Academy, Begumpet, Hyderabad, A.P;
9.Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology, Kottayam, Kerala;
10 Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering Research & Technology, Chandrapur, Maharashtra are among the 98 institutions named after Rajiv, Indira and Jawaharlal Nehru.
1.Rajiv Gandhi Award for Outstanding Achievement
2.Rajiv Gandhi Shiromani Award
3.Rajiv Gandhi Shramik Awards, Delhi Labour Welfare Board
4.Rajiv Gandhi National Sadbhavana Award
5.Rajiv Gandhi Manav Seva Award
6.Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Conservation Award
7.Rajiv Gandhi National Award Scheme for Original Book Writing on Gyan Vigyan
8.Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
9.Indira Gandhi Prize for National Integration;
10.Indira Gandhi Priyadarshini Award;
11.Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Awards, Ministry of Environment and Forests
12.Indira Gandhi Memorial National Award forBest Environmental & Ecological;
13 Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Purashkar;
14 Indira Gandhi NSS Award
15 Jawaharlal Nehru Prize" from 1998-99, to be given to organizations (preferably NGOs) for Popularization of Science;
16 Jawaharlal Nehru National Science Competition
17 Jawarharlal Nehru Student Award for research project of evolution of DNA are among the 51 named after the family members.
Scholarship / Fellowship
1.Rajiv Gandhi Scholarship Scheme for Students with Disabilities
2.Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme for SC/ST Candidates,
Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme for ST Candidates,
4 Rajiv Gandhi Fellowship, IGNOU;
5 Rajiv Gandhi Science Talent Research Fellows;
6.Rajiv Gandhi Fellowship, Ministry of Tribal Affairs;
7 Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship Scheme for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes candidates given by UGC;
8Rajiv Gandhi Fellowship sponsored by the Commonwealth of Learning in association with IGNOU;
9 Rajiv Gandhi science talent research fellowship given by Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for advanced scientific research are among others named after the family members.
National Parks/Sanctuaries/ Museums
1.Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarhole) Wildlife Sanctury, Karnataka;
2.Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Sanctury, Andhra Pradesh
3.Indira Gandhi National Park , Tamil Nadu;
4.Indira Gandhi Zoological Park , New Delh;
5 Indira Gandhi National Park, Anamalai Hills on Western Ghats ; ]
6.Indira Gandhi Zoological Park, Vishakhapatnam ;
7 Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya (IGRMS);
8.Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Pollachi;
9.Rajiv Gandhi Health Museum;
10.The Rajiv Gandhi Museum of Natural History
11.Indira Gandhi Memorial museum, New Delhi are parks and museums named after the family members.
1.Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science, Bangalore, Karnataka; 2 Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Delhi; 3 Rajiv Gandhi Home for Handicapped, Pondicherry; 4 Shri Rajiv Gandhi college of Dental Science & Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka; 5. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Bio Technology, Thiruvanthapuram, Kerala; 6 Rajiv Gandhi College of Nursing, Bangalore, Karnataka; 7 Rajiv Gandhi Super Specialty Hospital, Raichur; 8 Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Chest Diseases, Bangalore, Karnataka; 9 Rajiv Gandhi Paramedical College, Jodhpur; 10.Rajiv Gandhi Medical College, Thane, Mumbai are among 39 medical institutions named after the family members.
1.Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development. (RGNIYD), Ministry of Youth and Sports; 2 Rajiv Gandhi National Ground Water Training & Research Institute, Faridabad, Haryana; 3.Rajiv Gandhi Food Security Mission in Tribal Areas
4.Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development; 5..Rajiv Gandhi Shiksha Mission, Chhattisgarh; 6.Rajiv Gandhi Chair Endowment established in 1998 to create a Chair of South Asian Economics 7 Rajiv Gandhi Project – A pilot to provide Education thru Massive Satellite Connectivity up grassroot Level are among 37 named after Rajiv, Indira and Nehru.Pondicherry
1.Rajiv Chowk, Delhi; 2 Rajiv Gandhi Bhawan, Safdarjung, New Delhi; 3 Rajiv Gandhi Handicrafts Bhawan, New Delhi; 4 Rajiv Gandhi Park, Kalkaji, Delhi; 5 Indira Chowk, New Delhi; 6 Nehru Planetarium, New Delhi; 7 Nehru Yuvak Kendra, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi; 8 Nehru Nagar, New Delhi; 9 Nehru Place, New Delhi ; 10 Nehru Park, New Delhi Nehru House, BSZ Marg, New Delhi, are among 74 named after the family members.
Now new name…Rajiv Gandhi Bandra Worli Sea Link
Michael Jackson – The King of Pop. His music will last forever.
Remembering Michael Jackson – here are his select quotes & videos. My tribute to this icon who moon-walked on this earth.
Michael Jackson Quotes:
- “In a world filled with hate, we must still dare to hope. In a world filled with anger, we must still dare to comfort. In a world filled with despair, we must still dare to dream. And in a world filled with distrust, we must still dare to believe.” – Michael Jackson
- “The meaning of life is contained in every single expression of life.” – Michael Jackson
- “If you enter this world knowing you are loved and you leave this world knowing the same, then everything that happens in between can be dealt with.” – Michael Jackson
- “But I will never stop helping and loving people the way Jesus said to.” – Michael Jackson
- “I’m a black American, I am proud of my race. I am proud of who I am. I have a lot of pride and dignity. I’m happy to be alive, I’m happy to be who I am.” – Michael Jackson
- “People write negatives things, cause they feel that’s what sells. Good news to them, doesn’t sell.” – Michael Jackson
- “I’m never pleased with anything, I’m a perfectionist, it’s part of who I am.” – Michael Jackson
- “I’m just like anyone. I cut and I bleed. And I embarrass easily.” – Michael Jackson
- “When I see children, I see the face of God. That’s why I love them so much. That’s what I see.” – Michael Jackson
- “You know, let’s put it this way, if all the people in Hollywood who have had plastic surgery, if they went on vacation, there wouldn’t be a person left in town.” – Michael Jackson
Kim was a guest student of physics at Hanyang University from the age of 3 until he was 6. At the age of 7 he was invited to America by NASA. He finished his university studies, eventually getting a Ph.D. in physics at Colorado State University before he was 15. In 1974, during his university studies, he began his research work at NASA and continued this work until his return to Korea in 1978 where he decided to switch from physics to civil engineering and eventually received a doctorate in that field. Kim was offered the chance to study at the most prestigious universities in Korea, but instead chose to attend a provincial university. As of 2007 he also serves as adjunct faculty at Chungbuk National University.
Born in 1990, Gregory Smith could read at age two and had enrolled in university at 10. But “genius” is only one half of the Greg Smith story. When not voraciously learning, this young man travels the globe as a peace and children’s rights activist.
He is the founder of International Youth Advocates, an organization that promotes principles of peace and understanding among young people throughout the world.. He has met with Bill Clinton and Mikhail Gorbachev and spoke in front of the UN. For these and other humanitarian and advocacy efforts, Smith has been nominated four times for a Nobel Peace Prize. His latest achievement? He just got his driver license.
Akrit came to public attention when in 2000 he performed his first medical procedure at his family home. He was seven. His patient — a local girl who could not afford a doctor — was eight. Her hand had been burnt in a fire, causing her fingers to close into a tight fist that wouldn’t open. Akrit had no formal medical training and no experience of surgery, yet he managed to free her fingers and she was able to use her hand again.
He focused his phenomenal intelligence on medicine and at the age of twelve he claimed to be on the verge of discovering a cure for cancer. He is now studying for a science degree at Chandigarh College and is the youngest student ever accepted by an Indian University.
Clepotra was born October 6, 2002 in Chisinau, Moldova and is the daughter of Moldovan-Romanian singer, Pavel Stratan. She is the youngest person ever to score commercial success as a singer, with her 2006 album La vârsta de trei ani ("At the age of 3"). She holds the record for being the youngest artist that performed live for two hours in front of a large audience, the highest paid young artist, the youngest artist to receive an MTV award and the youngest artist to score a #1 hit in a country ("Ghita" in Romanian Singles Chart).
The abstract paintings of emerging artist Aelita Andre have people in Australia’s art world talking. Aelita is two (the works were painted when she was even younger).
Aelita got an opportunity to show her paintings when Mark Jamieson, the director of Brunswick Street Gallery in Melbourne’s Fitzroy, was asked by a photographer whose work he represented to consider the work of another artist. Jamieson liked what he saw and agreed to include it in a group show.
Jamieson then started to promote the show, printing glossy invitations and placing ads in the magazines Art Almanac and Art Collector, featuring the abstract work. Only then did he discover a crucial fact about the new artist: Aelita Andre is Kalashnikova’ s daughter, and was just 22 months old. Jamieson was shocked and embarrassed but decided to proceed with the exhibition anyways.
A rabbi’s son, Saul Aaron Kripke was born in New York and grew up in Omaha in 1940. By all accounts he was a true prodigy. In the fourth grade he discovered algebra, and by the end of grammar school he had mastered geometry and calculus and taken up philosophy. While still a teenager he wrote a series of papers that eventually transformed the study of modal logic. One of them earned a letter from the math department at Harvard, which hoped he would apply for a job until he wrote back and declined, explaining, "My mother said that I should finish high school and go to college first". After finishing high school, the college he eventually chose was Harvard.
Kripke was awarded the Schock Prize, philosophy’s equivalent of the Nobel. Nowadays, he is thought to be the world’s greatest living philosopher.
24 year-old Michael Kearney became known as the world’s youngest college graduate at the age of 10. In 2008, Kearney earned $1,000,000 on the television game show Who Wants to be a Millionaire?
Kearny was born in 1984 and is was known for setting several world records and teaching college at the age of 17.
He spoke his first words at four months. At the age of six months, he said to his pediatrician "I have a left ear infection" and learned to read at the age of ten months. When Michael was four, he was given diagnostic tests for the Johns Hopkins precocious math program and achieved a perfect score. He finished high school at age 6, enrolled at Santa Rosa Junior College graduating at 10 with an Associate of Science in Geology. He is listed in the Guinness Book as the world’s youngest university graduate at the age of 10, receiving a bachelor’s degree in anthropology. For a while, he also held the record for the world’s youngest postgraduate.
But in 2006, he became worldwide famous after reaching the finals on the Mark Burnett/AOL quiz/puzzle game Gold Rush, and became the first $1 million winner in the online reality game.
Fabulous Fabiano is a 16-year-old chess Grandmaster and chess prodigy with dual citizenship of Italy and the United States.
On 2007 Caruana became a Grandmaster at the age of 14 years, 11 months, 20 days – the youngest Grandmaster in the history of both Italy and the United States. In the April 2009 FIDE list, he has an Elo rating of 2649, making him the world’s highest ranked player under the age of 18.
William Joseph Mosconi, nicknamed "Mr. Pocket Billiards" was a American professional pocket billiards (pool) player from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Willie’s father owned a pool hall where he wasn’t allowed to play, but Willie improvised by practicing with small potatoes from his mother’s kitchen and an old broomstick. His father soon realized that his son was a child prodigy began advertising challenge matches, and though Willie had to stand on a box in order to reach the table, he beat experienced players many years his senior.
In 1919, an exhibition match was arranged between six-year old Willie and the reigning World Champion, Ralph Greenleaf. The hall was packed, and though Greenleaf won that match, Willie played very well launching his career in professional billiards. In 1924, at the tender age of eleven, Willie was the juvenile straight pool champion and was regularly holding trick shot exhibitions.
Between the years of 1941 and 1957, he won the BCA World Championship of pool an unmatched fifteen times. Mosconi pioneered and employed numerous trick shots, set many records, and helped to popularize the game of billiards. He still holds the officially recognized straight pool high run record of 526 consecutive balls.
Her local radio station gave her the job after she rang and offered advice to a woman caller who had been dumped. Elaina’s tip — go bowling with pals and drink a mug of milk — was so good she got a weekly slot and now advises thousands of adult listeners. The littler adviser tackles problems ranging from how to dump boyfriends and how to cope with relationship breakdown to dealing with smelly brothers.
When one listener wrote to Elaina asking how to get a man, she replied: "Shake your booty on the dance floor and listen to High School Musical". Another caller asked how to get her man back, Elaina told her: "He’s not worth the heartache. Life’s too short to be upset with a boy."
(476 CE) MASTER ASTRONOMER AND MATHEMATICIAN
Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur (Bihar), Aryabhatt’s intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam. " He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space – 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, "This value has been given by the Hindus." And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics.
GENIUS IN ALGEBRA
Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya’ s work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise "Siddhant Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the "Surya Siddhant" he makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction." Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton. He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medieval India. His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.
FOUNDER OF ATOMIC THEORY
As the founder of "Vaisheshik Darshan"- one of six principal philosophies of India – Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat. He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, "Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules." His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton.. Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other. The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook, has said, "Compared to the scientists of Europe, Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field."
NAGARJUNA (100 CE)
WIZARD OF CHEMICAL SCIENCE
He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh. His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like "Ras Ratnakar," "Rashrudaya" and "Rasendramangal" are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. As the author of medical books like "Arogyamanjari" and "Yogasar," he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda. Nagarjuna’s milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists of today.
FATHER OF MEDICINE
Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the "Charak Samhita", is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagoneses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe, Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. In the "Charak Samhita" he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants. He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body. He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to Ayurvedal. He forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.
ACHARYA SUSHRUT (600 BCE)
FATHER OF PLASTIC SURGERY
A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sudhrut details the first ever surgery procedures in "Sushrut Samhita," a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe, Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the "Sushrut Samhita," he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, Cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse’s hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the "Sushrut Samhita," and fibers of bark. In the "Sushrut Samhita," he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.
VARAHAMIHIR (499-587 CE)
EMINENT ASTROLOGER AND ASTRONOMERA
renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti (Ujjain). Varahamihir’ s book "panchsiddhant" holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the "Bruhad Samhita" and "Bruhad Jatak," he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.
ACHARYA PATANJALI (200 BCE)
FATHER OF YOGA
The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali, the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh. He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali’s 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna. The Science of Yoga has gained popularity because of its scientific approach and benefits. Yoga also holds the honored place as one of six philosophies in the Indian philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-discipline, happiness and self-realization.
ACHARYA BHARADWAJ (800 BCE)
PIONEER OF AVIATION TECHNOLOGY
Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ordent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further reflected through techniques described by him:
1.) Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force.
2.) Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force.
3..) Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane.
4.) Visual Secrets: The technique to see what’s happening inside another plane.
Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology.
ACHARYA KAPIL (3000 BCE)
FATHER OF COSMOLOGY
Celebrated as the founder of Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapil is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardam and Devhuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers – incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology. Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as the Father of Cosmology.
Mr Pushkar Bhatnagar of the Indian Revenue Service had acquired this software from the US.. It is used to predict the solar/lunar eclipses and distance and location of other planets from earth. He entered the relevant details about the planetary positions narrated by Maharishi Valmiki and obtained very interesting and convincing results, which almost determine the important dates starting from the birth of Shri Ram to the date of his coming back to Ayodhya after 14 years of exile.
Maharishi Valmiki has recorded in Bal Kaand sarga 19 and shloka eight and nine (1/18/8,9) that Shri Ram was born on ninth tithi of Chaitra month when the position of different planets vis-a-vis zodiac constellations and nakshatras (visible stars) were: i) Sun in Aries; ii) Saturn in Libra; iii) Jupiter in Cancer; iv) Venus in Pisces; v) Mars in Capricorn; vi) Lunar month of Chaitra; vii) Ninth day after no moon; viii) Lagna as Cancer (cancer was rising in the east); ix) Moon on the Punarvasu (Gemini constellation & Pllux star); x) Day time (around noon).
This data was fed into the software. The results indicated that this was exactly the location of planets/stars in the noon of January 10, 5114 BC. Thus Shri Ram was born on January 10, 5114 BC (7121 years back). As per the Indian calendar it was the ninth day of Shukla Paksha in Chaitra month and the time was around 12 to 1 noontime. This is exactly the time and date when Ram Navmi is celebrated all over India.
Shri Ram was born in Ayodhya. This fact can be ascertained from several books written by Indian and foreign authors before and after the birth of Christ – Valmiki Ramayan, Tulsi Ramayan, Kalidasa’s Raghuvansam, Baudh and Jain literature, etc. These books have narrated in great detail the location, rich architecture and beauty of Ayodhya which had many palaces and temples built all over the kingdom. Ayodhya was located on the banks of the Saryu river with Ganga and Panchal Pradesh on one side and Mithila on the other side. Normally 7,000 years is a very long period during which earthquakes, storms, floods and foreign invasions change the course of rivers, destroy the towns/buildings and alter the territories. Therefore, the task of unearthing the facts is monumental. The present Ayodhya has shrunk in size and the rivers have changed their course about 40 km north/south.
Shri Ram went out of Ayodhya in his childhood (13th year as per Valmiki Ramayan) with Rishi Vishwamitra who lived in Tapovan (Sidhhashram). From there he went to Mithila, King Janaka’s kingdom. Here he married Sita after breaking Shiv Dhanusha. Researchers have gone along the route adopted by Shri Ram as narrated in the Valmiki Ramayan and found 23 places which have memorials that commemorate the events related to the life of Shri Ram. These include Shringi Ashram, Ramghat, Tadka Van, Sidhhashram, Gautamashram, Janakpur (now in Nepal), Sita Kund, etc. Memorials are built for great men and not for fictitious characters.
Date of exile of Shri Ram: It is mentioned in Valmiki Ramayan’s Ayodhya Kand (2/4/18) that Dashratha wanted to make Shri Ram the king because Sun, Mars and Rahu had surrounded his nakshatra and normally under such planetary configuration the king dies or becomes a victim of conspiracies. Dashratha’s zodiac sign was Pisces and his nakshatra was Rewati. This planetary configuration was prevailing on the January 5, 5089 BC, and it was on this day that Shri Ram left Ayodhya for 14 years of exile. Thus, he was 25 years old at that time (5114-5089). There are several shlokas in Valmiki Ramayan which indicate that Shri Ram was 25-years-old when he left Ayodhya for exile.
Valmiki Ramayan refers to the solar eclipse at the time of war with Khardushan in later half of 13th year of Shri Ram’s exile. It is also mentioned it was amavasya day and Mars was in the middle. When this data was entered, the software indicated that there was a solar eclipse on October 7, 5077 BC, (amavasya day) which could be seen from Panchvati. The planetary configuration was also the same – Mars was in the middle, on one side were Venus and Mercury and on the other side were Sun and Saturn. On the basis of planetary configurations described in various other chapters, the date on which Ravana was killed works out to be December 4, 5076 BC, and Shri Ram completed 14 years of exile on January 2, 5075 BC, and that day was also Navami of Shukla Paksha in Chaitra month. Thus Shri Ram had come back to Ayodhya at the age of 39 (5114-5075).
A colleague, Dr Ram Avtar, researched on places visited by Shri Ram during his exile, and sequentially moved to the places stated as visited by Shri Ram in the Valmiki Ramayan, starting from Ayodhya he went right upto Rameshwaram. He found 195 places which still have the memorials connected to the events narrated in the Ramayana relating to the life of Shri Ram and Sita. These include Tamsa Tal (Mandah), Shringverpur (Singraur), Bhardwaj Ashram (situated near Allahabad), Atri Ashram, Markandaya Ashram (Markundi), Chitrakoot, Pamakuti (on banks of Godavari), Panchvati, Sita Sarovar, Ram Kund in Triambakeshwar near Nasik, Shabari Ashram, Kishkindha (village Annagorai), Dhanushkoti and Rameshwar temple.
In Valmiki Ramayan it is mentioned that Shri Ram’s army constructed a bridge over the sea between Rameshwaram and Lanka. After crossing this bridge, Shri Ram’s army had defeated Ravana. Recently, NASA put pictures on the Internet of a man-made bridge, the ruins of which are lying submerged in Palk Strait between Rameshwaram and Sri Lanka. Recently the Sri Lankan Government had expressed the desire to develop Sita Vatika as a tourist spot. Sri Lankans believe this was Ashok Vatika where Ravana had kept Sita as a prisoner (in 5076 BC).
Indian history has recorded that Shri Ram belonged to the Suryavansh and he was the 64th ruler of this dynasty. The names and other relevant particulars of previous 63 kings are listed in Ayodhya Ka Itihas written about 80 years ago by Rai Bahadur Sita Ram. Professor Subhash Kak of Lousiana University, in his book, The Astronomical Code of the Rig Veda, has also listed 63 ancestors of Shri Ram who ruled over Ayodhya. Sri Ram’s ancestors have been traced out as: Shri Ram, King Dashratha, King Aja, King Raghu, King Dilip and so on.. From Kashmir to Kanyakumari and from Bengal to Gujarat, everywhere people believe in the reality of Shri Ram’s existence, particularly in the tribal areas of Himachal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the North-East. Most of the festivals celebrated in these areas revolve around the events in the life of Shri Ram and Shri Krishna.
The events and places related to the life of Shri Ram and Sita are true cultural and social heritage of every Indian irrespective of caste and creed. Therefore, it is common heritage. After all, Shri Ram belonged to the period when Prophet Mohammed or Jesus Christ were not born and Muslim or Christian faiths were unknown to the world. The words Hindu (resident of Hindustan) and Indian (resident of India) were synonymous.. India was also known as Bharat (land of knowledge) and Aryavarta (where Aryans live) and Hindustan (land of "Hindus" – derived from word Indus).
During Ram Rajya, the evils of caste system based on birth were non-existent. In fact, Maharishi Valmiki is stated to be of shudra class (scheduled caste), still Sita lived with him as his adopted daughter after she was banished from Ayodhya. Luv and Kush grew in his ashram as his disciples. We need to be proud of the fact that Valmiki was perhaps the first great astronomer and that his study of planetary configurations has stood the test of times. Even the latest computer softwares have corroborated his astronomical calculations, which proves that he did not commit any error.
Shabari is stated to be belonging to the Bheel tribe. Shri Ram’s army, which succeeded in defeating Ravana, was formed by various tribals from Central and South India. The facts, events and all other details relating to the life of Shri Ram are the common heritage of all the Indians including scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, Muslims, Christians, etc.
Prophet Mohammad was born 1,400 years ago. Jesus Christ was born 2,000 years back. Gautam Buddha was born 2,600 years back, whereas Ram was born 7,000 years back. Hence, discovering the details relating to Shri Ram’s life would be lot more difficult as destruction caused by floods, earthquakes and invasions etc., would be far greater. But, should that stop our quest for learning more about our cultural heritage?
As Indians, let us all take pride in the fact that the Indian civilisation is the most ancient civilisation today. It is certainly more than 10,000 years old. Therefore, let us reject the story of Aryan invasion in India in 1,500 BC as motivated implantation. In fact Max Mueller, who was the creator of this theory had himself rejected it. Let us admit that during the British Rule, we were educated in the schools based on Macaulay school of thinking which believed that everything Indian was inferior and that entire "Indian literature was not worth even one book rack in England". If there were similarities in certain features of Indian people and people from Central Europe, then automatic inference drawn was that the Aryans coming from Europe invaded India and settled here. No one dared of thinking in any other way. Therefore, there is urgency for the historians and all other intellectuals to stop reducing Indian history to myth. There is need to gather, dig out, search, unearth and analyse all the evidences, which would throw more light on ancient Indian civilisation and culture.
There is need for the print and the electronic media to take note of these facts and create atmosphere which would motivate our young and educated youth to carry out research and unearth true facts about the ancient Indian civilisation and wisdom and would also encourage them to put across the results of their research before the people fearlessly and with a sense of pride!
Saroj Bala, The Pioneer
IRS, Commisioner of Income Tax posted at Delh
1. If you understand, say "understand" . If you don ‘ t understand, say " don ‘ t understand". But if you understand and say "don ‘ t understand". How do I understand that you understand? Understand!
2.I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish, but if you wish the wish the witch wishes, I won ‘ t wish the wish you wish to wish.
3. Sounding by sound is a sound method of sounding sounds.
4 ..A sailor went to sea to see, what he could see. And all he could see was sea, sea, sea.
5 .. Purple Paper People, Purple Paper People, Purple Paper People
6 ..If two witches were watching two watches, which witch would watch which watch?
7 ..I thought a thought.But the thought I thought wasn ‘ t the thought I thought I thought. If the thought I thought I thought had been the thought I thought, I wouldn ‘ t have thought so much.
8 ..Once a fellow met a fellow In a field of beans. Said a fellow to a fellow, "If a fellow asks a fellow, Can a fellow tell a fellow What a fellow means?"
9.Mr Inside went over to see Mr Outside. Mr Inside stood outside and called to MrOutside inside.
Mr Outside answered Mr Inside from inside and Told Mr Inside to come inside. Mr Inside said "NO", and told Mr Outside to come outside.
Mr Outside and Mr Inside argued from inside and outside about going outside or coming inside. Finally, Mr Outside coaxed Mr Inside to come inside, then both Mr Outside and Mr Inside went outside to the riverside.
10..SHE SELLS SEA SHELLS ON THE SEA SHORE , BUT THE SEA SHELLS THAT SHE SELLS, ON THE SEA SHORE ARE NOT THE REAL ONES
11.. The owner of the inside inn was inside his inside inn with his inside outside his inside inn. **********
12..If one doctor doctors another doctor does the doctor who doctors the doctor doctor the doctor the way the doctor he is doctoring doctors? Or does the doctor doctor the way the doctor who doctors doctors?
"When a doctor falls ill another doctor doctor ‘ s the doctor. Does the doctor doctoring the doctor doctor the doctor in his own way or does the doctor doctoring the doctor doctors the doctor in the doctor ‘ s way"
13..We surely shall see the sun shine shortly. Whether the weather be fine, Or whether the weather be not, Whether the weather be cold Or whether the weather be hot, We ‘ ll weather the weather Whatever the weather, Whether we like it or not. Watch? Whether the weather is hot.
Whether the weather is cold. Whether the weather is either or not. It is whether we like it or not.
14..Nine nice night nurses nursing nicely .
15 .A flea and a fly in a flue Said the fly "Oh what should we do" Said the flea" Let us fly Said the fly"Let us flee" So they flew through a flaw in the flue
16..If you tell Tom to tell a tongue-twister his tongue will be twisted as tongue-twister twists tongues.
17..Mr. See owned a saw.And Mr. Soar owned a seesaw. Now See ‘ s saw sawed Soar ‘ s seesaw Before Soar saw See, Which made Soar sore.Had Soar seen See ‘ s saw Before See sawed Soar ‘ s seesaw, See ‘ s saw would not have sawed Soar ‘ s seesaw. So See ‘ s saw sawed Soar ‘ s seesaw.But it was sad to see Soar so sore Just because See ‘ s saw sawed Soar ‘ s seesaw …..